Parasites in the body - types, signs of appearance and prevention

Parasites in the human bodyappear completely unexpectedly. The reason is usually direct contact with the source of the infection, for example with an infected person or object. There are many types of parasites that can settle in the human body: they can be lamblia, pinworms, alveococci, trichinella, schistosomes, etc.

Parasites in the human body

The human body has quite a complex structure, which is susceptible to various diseases and infections, infections, viruses and parasites. Parasites that take up residence in the human body are microorganisms that lead a parasitic lifestyle, trying to survive by feeding on other organisms, microorganisms, cells, etc.

Parasites that live in the human body are microorganisms that lead a parasitic lifestyle, trying to survive by feeding on other organisms, microorganisms, cells, etc.

Parasites that find fertile ground for life and reproduction in the human body, cause very serious, sometimes irreparable damage to its health, destroy the body from the inside, eat it and sometimes lead to the death ofa person, or the work of individual organs, which also worsens a person's quality of life, depresses and ultimately shortens their life.

There are millions of species of parasitic worms found in nature. Among these, there are those who parasitize only one representative of the animal world. But in nature there are also species that can exist in the body of several species of animals. What parasites live in the human body is a question that many people ask themselves.

A wide variety of helminth species can live in the human body. Some of them are very rare, while others very often settle indoors and can lead a parasitic lifestyle for several decades.

Varieties of parasitism

There are the following types of parasitism: ectoparasitism - parasites that lead a superficial way of life on the human body. This category includes lice, insects, ticks; endoparasitism - parasites that affect a person's internal organs. They, in turn, are divided into two large groups of protozoa and helminths.

Types of parasitic protozoa: lamblia, toxoplasma, trichoionada. These types of protozoan parasites are most often found in the human body.

The classification of parasites associated with helminths implies their division into three large groups: nematodes; trematodes; cestodes.

Types of parasites in the human body


Pinworms are the most well-known parasites of the intestines. The disease caused by pinworms is called enterobiosis. Not only people suffer from it, but also great apes. Children are at increased risk of infection with pinworms. According to various sources, the level of their involvement in enterobiosis at preschool age varies from 25 to 90%. Pinworms are passed from person to person. Infection occurs with a handshake, clothes and any object touched by a sick person, provided that after contact, the hands are not washed and pinworm eggs enter the mouth (this happensespecially often during a meal).

Flies and cockroaches can carry the eggs of these nematode worms by sowing their food. Pinworms live in the small intestine, in the cecum, in the colon. They mate in the ileum, after which the female crawls out of the anus through the rectum and lays eggs in the anus.

Symptoms of enterobiosis are itching in the anal area, intoxication of the body (allergic reactions, exhaustion, fatigue), anemia, increased level of eosinophils in the blood, insomnia and abdominal pain.

In order to get rid of enterobiosis, anthelmintics are used. The dosage and course of treatment are chosen by the doctor. To avoid re-infection, it is important to keep your hands clean, wash them after visiting public places, after using the toilet, before eating, etc.

Nails should be cut short, bed and underwear should be thoroughly disinfected, and the apartment should be cleaned daily.


Toxocara is a parasite of the nematode group. The disease caused by toxocara is called "toxocariasis". This invasion in humans can be larval (ocular and visceral), as well as intestinal. The disease is widespread all over the world. Toxocara infection occurs when the eggs of the worm enter the human digestive tract. This is most often seen when consuming food or water contaminated with dog feces. Contact with sick animals is no less dangerous.

The natural carriers of Toxocara are cats and dogs, foxes and wolves. Once in the human body, the worm larva migrates through blood vessels and can settle in any organ. The symptoms of the disease will depend on it. Most often, toxocarosis manifests itself in the form of allergic reactions (angioedema, rash, bronchial asthma). During an exacerbation of the disease, the body temperature can rise to 38 degrees, but the symptoms of intoxication of the body are weakly expressed.

Toxocariasis can be suspected by enlarged lymph nodes: the visceral form of toxocariasis is the most common, occurs with damage to internal organs (intestines, respiratory system, heart valves).

A person may experience pain in the abdomen, in the right hypochondrium, dyspeptic disorders, nausea; if the respiratory system is damaged, a person has shortness of breath, a dry cough, attacks of choking; if the toxocars settle on the heart valves, the patient has weakness, blue fingers and a nasolabial triangle, shortness of breath; the shape of the skin is characterized by itching, a feeling of movement under the skin, inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes; in neurological form, the parasite causes the development of inflammation of the meninges and the brain tissues themselves.

It manifests as headache, nausea and vomiting, seizures and other neurological disorders. For the treatment of toxocarosis, anthelmintic drugs are used, as well as pathogenetic and symptomatic therapy.

Human Ascaris

The human roundworm is a roundworm parasitizing the small intestine. The disease caused by these parasites is called ascariasis. The owner of the roundworm and the source of infection is a sick person. With its excrement, the eggs of the worms penetrate the soil, where they become larvae. Then this soil is transferred to food or to human hands, and if the rules of personal hygiene are not followed and the fruits, vegetables and berries are improperly processed, it is transferred to the digestive tract.

Children and people in rural areas are more susceptible to infections. Ascariosis manifests itself in different phases of its development in different ways. In the phase of larval migration through the body, an increase in body temperature occurs, a dry cough appears, wheezing in the lungs, and lymph nodes increase in size. Children suffer from ascariasis more severely than adults.

Allergic skin reactions are a hallmark symptom of ascariasis. During parasitism in the intestines, the patient develops dyspeptic disorders, loose stools are replaced by constipation, frequent abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occur. On the side of the nervous system, hysterical crises, insomnia, mental fatigue and headaches are observed.

For the treatment of ascariasis in the stage of larval migration, patients are prescribed anthelmintic drugs, while others parasitize the worms in the intestines.

Hookworm and nekator

hookworm and nekator are two types of roundworms that belong to the Ancylostomatidae family and cause a disease called hookworm. There are two ways of infecting the human body with these parasites - faecal-oral (drinking contaminated water, fruits, vegetables) and percutaneous on contact with the ground (penetration is through the skin).

Clinical symptoms of hookworm infection: papular vesicular rash, shortness of breath and cough, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, loose stools, iron deficiency anemia. Treatment is reduced to taking anthelmintic drugs and eliminating anemia with iron preparations.

Large ribbon

Broad tapeworm refers to tapeworms of the order Pseudophyilidea. These parasites live in the small intestine of humans and mammals that eat fish. Infection with a tapeworm causes the development of a disease such as diphyllobothriasis.

There are 12 types of tapeworms that can parasitize the human body, however, the larger tapeworm is the most common. Infection occurs when consuming raw, non-thermally processed fish or caviar that contains worm eggs. Symptoms of the presence of the parasite in the intestines: nausea, abdominal pain, anemia.

In severe cases, intestinal obstruction develops. To get rid of the parasite, patients are prescribed antiparasitic drugs. After the end of the therapeutic course, a second study is mandatory for the presence of a worm in the body. If necessary, the use of anthelmintic drugs is repeated.

Bull tapeworm

The bull tapeworm is a tapeworm belonging to the tapeworm family. At the larval stage it affects cattle and at the tapeworm stage lives in the human body (in its intestines). Tapeworm causes a disease called teniarinhoz, as a rule, a parasite is present in the patient's body. Human infection occurs through food after eating improperly heat-treated meat (beef).

Clinically, the disease manifests itself as nausea, excessive appetite, pain in the abdomen, unstable stools and allergic reactions such as hives. To remove bovine tapeworm from the body, an anthelmintic agent is prescribed. In parallel, the patient should adhere to a slag-free diet, put on cleansing enemas, take laxatives. After using an anthelmintic agent, the worm dies and leaves the human body naturally. Sometimes its length can be up to 12 m.

Pork tapeworm

The pork tapeworm is a parasitic tapeworm that infects mammals. Intermediate carriers can be pigs, dogs, rabbits, camels, but the ultimate owner is always a man.

If an adult parasite is found in a person's body, it speaks of a disease such as tapeworm. When the parasite is found in the patient's body in the larval stage, the disease is called "cysticercosis".

Pork tapeworm infection occurs when non-thermally processed pork is eaten. Sometimes the sources of cysticercini are hand seeding or water. A patient with tapeworm presents an epidemiological danger both to himself (infection with larvae of the brain, skin, eyes or skeletal muscles) and to others.

Symptoms of tapeworm: abdominal pain, loss of appetite, disturbed stools, headache, frequent dizziness, fainting (tenosis of the brain and eyes is extremely dangerous). For the treatment of tapeworm, the patient is placed in the hospital. Under the supervision of doctors, he is prescribed anthelmintics, after which, after 2 hours, the patient takes a saline laxative, which allows him to get rid of the segments and eggs of the worm. For the treatment of cysticercosis of the eyes and brain, surgery is required.


Echinococcus is a tapeworm of the order Cyclophyllidae. Adults parasitize the intestines of dogs and cats and are found in jackals and wolves. For humans, the larvae of parasites are dangerous, which can cause a serious disease - echinococcosis. The larvae can infect a person's internal organs, forming echinococcal cysts there. For echinococci, humans act as an intermediate host.

The infection is carried out by contact (during the cutting of carcasses, during interactions with a sick animal), or food (during consumption of contaminated food or water). People at risk are those who breed or are in constant contact with animals. Symptoms may not appear for many years.

When the asymptomatic stage ends, pain, itchy skin and hives appear at the site of the larval invasion. In addition, the functioning of the organ inside which the parasitic echinococcus larva suffers. An increase in body temperature and fever is observed during suppuration of the cyst.

Complete recovery from echinococcosis is only possible with surgery. The cyst is shelled, taking care not to damage its membrane. If the bladder is very large, it is punctured and the contents are aspirated. Before and after the operation, the patient is prescribed antiparasitic drugs. In the event of radical removal of the cyst, the prognosis for recovery is favorable.


Alveococcus is a helminth of the cestode group. The worm cries out a deadly disease of alveococcosis, characterized by the formation of a primary focus in the liver with the subsequent spread of metastases to other organs. Infection occurs when oncospheres of the parasite enter the mouth.

This can happen while hunting, in the process of butchering carcasses of wild animals, in contact with domestic animals, or when eating unprocessed berries and herbs from the forest. Symptoms of alveococcosis are reduced to pain in the right hypochondrium, belching, nausea. Often there is itching, allergic reactions. Suppuration of a tumor with a parasite and its breakthrough into the abdominal or pleural cavity is not excluded.

Alveococcal metastases can be found in the brain and lungs. Treatment of the disease is prompt, but should be supplemented with the intake of antiparasitic drugs.


Giardia (another name for Giardia) are flagellated parasites belonging to the order Diplomonadides. Giardia causes a disease called "giardiasis" and parasitizes the small intestine of humans, as well as many other mammals and even birds.

Giardia infection occurs via the fecal-oral route: food, water and household contact methods. The use of raw water, contaminated food and public objects seeded with lamblia cysts is of utmost importance in terms of transmission of infection. The main symptoms of giardiasis are nausea, painful sensations in the abdomen, disturbed stools, and excess gas.

In addition, patients suffer from allergic reactions, intoxication and neurotic disorders. Treatment of giardiasis is carried out with the help of antiprotozoal drugs, as well as the inclusion of enzymes, choleretic agents and enterosorbents in the treatment regimen.

Histological amoeba

Histological amoeba is a protozoan parasite that causes a disease called amebiasis. The disease is manifested by the formation of ulcers in the large intestine, followed by damage to other internal organs. Amoeba infection occurs via the fecal-oral route, after mature cysts from water or food enter the human gastrointestinal tract. Possible transmission of parasites by contact with unwashed hands. Flies can be carriers of amoeba.

Another way of spreading amebiasis is through sex (anal intercourse). Symptoms of amebiasis: profuse mucous stools, abdominal pain, blood in the stool, weight loss, anemia. In addition, extra-intestinal amebiasis is characterized by the formation of abscesses in the organs affected by the parasites (lungs, brain, liver, etc. ). Antiprotozoa are prescribed to treat intestinal ambiasis.

The duration of treatment is determined by the severity of the amebiasis.

A disease called gnatostomiasis is caused by the larvae and sexually mature nematodes Gnathostoma spinigerum. Infection occurs when eating unprocessed fish, frog or bird meat, as well as consuming unboiled, uncontaminated water. Symptoms of the disease are manifested by coughing and pain at the site of entry of the larvae under the skin, local inflammation and an increase in body temperature.

Severe edema and itching are typical. Usually, within a week of the onset of symptoms, they go away, but they reappear over the years. Dangerous damage to the eyeball and brain, it is often fatal. Treatment involves taking anthelmintic drugs and surgery. During the operation, the parasites are eliminated under the skin.


Trichinellae are round parasitic worms, which in the larval stage live in the muscles (oculomotors, masticators, diaphragm), and in adulthood - in the lumen of the small intestine. The disease caused by trichinella is called "trichinosis". It's fatal.

Human infection occurs through the consumption of raw or improperly processed meat from wild and domestic animals. Symptoms include loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In the future, muscle pain, swelling of the eyelids and rashes join together. Treatment of parasite infestation is carried out with the help of anthelmintic drugs. At the same time, antihistamines are prescribed and corticosteroids as needed.


Schistosomes are fluke worms of the genus trematodes. They cause a disease called schistosomiasis. Human infection occurs during bathing, when washing clothes or sprinkling the floor with water with schistosome larvae.They are able to enter the human body even through intact skin and mucous membranes. Symptoms in the acute stage of the disease are manifested by a rise in temperature to high levels, itching of the skin, and the appearance of papules all over the body.

Once the disease becomes chronic, the infected person may show signs of colpitis, prostatitis, colitis, ascites, hydronephrosis, etc. Anthelmintic drugs are used to treat the disease. Surgery is required for complications of genitourinary schistosomiasis.

Many parasites can harm the human body. Most of them enter their owner's body through the gastrointestinal tract if safe food preparation technology is not followed and basic hygiene procedures are not followed.

Parasites in the body - adaptive properties

  • long life expectancy (helminths live in the human body for years, and sometimes as long as the parasite host lives);
  • the ability to suppress or modify the immune response of the host organism (a state of immunodeficiency occurs, conditions are created for the penetration of pathogens from the outside, as well as for "disinhibition"internal foci of infection);
  • many types of helminths entering the digestive tract release antienzymes, which saves them from death; the digestion process is disturbed, toxic allergic reactions of varying severity appear: urticaria, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis;
  • stages of development (egg, larva, change of owner);
  • the ability of eggs to survive for years in the external environment;
  • sexual reproduction, in which the exchange of genetic information takes place, and this is already the highest stage of development, leading to an increase in the heterogeneous population, that is, the parasitesbecome less vulnerable;
  • lack of vaccination methods because the immune response is weak and unstable;
  • Helminths widespread, many habitats (water, soil, air, plants and animals).

Prevention of parasites in the body

Preventive measures to prevent infestation of pests must be comprehensive. First of all, it is necessary to follow the basic rules of personal hygiene, to eat only fruits, washed vegetables, as well as heat-treated fish and meat, to drink only waterclean.

Most experts advocate drug prevention of helminthiasis with the help of pharmaceutical antiparasitic drugs - a parasitologist will help you choose the necessary drug and correctly calculate its dosage.

You can supplement this therapy with folk remedies that have an anthelmintic effect - for example, eat more onions, garlic, various spices, regularly eat pumpkin seeds.